In the fall of 2014 I began to actively reach out to faculty and graduate student instructors (GSI) in an effort to increase use of the Environmental Design Archives by students. I read through course descriptions for undergraduate and graduate classes offered in the College of Environmental Design. For courses offered that directly related to material held by the Archives, I emailed or spoke in person with faculty members and GSIs and provided a list of relevant collection materials with links to digitized collection material on the Online Archive of California (OAC) when possible. 75% of faculty and GSIs contacted scheduled instruction sessions at the Archives. During the academic year 239 students toured the EDA from 13 different courses. As classes visited the Archives, I began to wonder what students were learning from these one-shot archival instruction sessions.
Engaging faculty to bring their classes to use the EDA led to collaboration between Archives staff and faculty on curriculum, which led to teaching students with targeted collection material. To close the loop and to get a better sense of what students were taking away from one-shot Archival instructional sessions, surveys were administered.
To date I have surveyed 5 classes: CED’s American Architecture: The UCB Campus, Landscape Plants: Identification and Use, Landscape Graphics I, California Architecture, and Art History’s Berkeley Collects. Below are graphs and a summary analysis of the responses to 5 core questions: Experience with Primary Resources, Takeaways, Effectiveness, Likelihood of Returning, and Education Level/Field of Study.
EXPERIENCE WITH PRIMARY RESOURCES
For 52% of students, the instructional session at the EDA was their first exposure to an Archival repository. Therefore, it is essential that their first experience be a positive one that leads to an understanding of the value and importance of primary resources in relation to their current studies, their professional careers, and other future endeavors.
Students are taking away with them valuable information about how to access the resources available to them at the EDA (and other archives) as well as information contained in the archival records and drawings themselves, i.e. why and how they were created (drawing techniques) and the larger context of what information the drawings convey about the client, design aesthetic, program, function, and era in which they were created.
More than half of the students who took the survey thought the tour was adequate and did not offer any suggestions on how to improve it. However, the majority of the remaining responses touched on specific concepts and content they would like addressed-- predominately studying design development and how to access digitized collection material. This feedback has been immensely helpful, and in response I have created a guide to hand to students, which Assistant Archivist Cailin Trimble designed, describing how to access information about our Collections - both physical and digital. I have also begun to include more examples of design development in the projects I pull for student instruction sessions.
LIKELIHOOD OF RETURNING
The chart below shows the likeliness of returning on a scale of 1 to 10, the vertical axis illustrates the percent of people indicating a level of likeliness.
It is great to see that 88% of students are likely to return to the Archives.
EDUCATION LEVEL AND FIELD OF STUDY
54% of students who toured the Archives do not come from a design or architectural history background. Therefore, the EDA might be the first place where they are introduced to records of the built environment.
The survey project has been an extremely informative process, one that has yielded invaluable information about what students are taking away from one-shot archival instruction sessions at the Environmental Design Archives. This information continues to inform the material that is pulled for class visits, and how information about the Archives’ resources is presented verbally and through print (handouts). I plan to continue to survey classes that visit the Archives in an effort to collect more viable data and improve both instruction and the student’s experience.
We are well on our way to updating our virtual exhibits website. We have installed a new version of Omeka, the software used to run the website, customized the theme for the site, and are in the final stages of testing before we transition all of our content.
You have an opportunity to help us out with this! The archives recently hosted a silent auction fund-raiser and many of the items remain unsold. As a way to test the new website, we are hosting an online sale of the remaining items.
Check out the sale here and let us know what you think of the new site and if you come across any bugs. Many of the changes are on the back end organization, but you will notice that the new site is organized more like the EDA website and navigating exhibits (the sale categories in this case) is slightly different.
We want to make clear that we are not selling items from collections. All items are either prints from made from our collections or were donated expressly for sale. The sale will run from November 2 - December 10 and the virtual exhibits content will not be transferred to the new site until after that date, sometime in mid-January.
We have been putting off adding new exhibits to our current page until after we make the transition so look for new virtual exhibits in January!
Did you know that October is American Archives Month? Created by the Society of American Archivists in 2006, it gives archivists the chance to tell people that about the work we do. As you know, the Environmental Design Archives strives to raise awareness of the significant architectural and landscape heritage of Northern California and beyond through collecting, preserving, and providing access to the primary records of the built and landscaped environment for our region. Access is always our end goal since we want these important records to be used for school projects, scholarly research, or professional and personal study. Providing access is so important because it makes this history live on, saves landscapes and buildings, and educates future users. Sometimes all that remains of the designed environment are the photographs and drawings. The EDA reaches out through our website, physical and online exhibits, publications, programs, and reference and outreach services.
|Collection before processing...|
Throughout the month of October, we welcome you to participate in American Archives Month by asking us about our work in the EDA using #AskAnArchivist. Have you ever wanted to know how we conserve historic drawings? Or wanted to hear about the time an archivist got to travel to a castle in Austria to pack up a collection? Or wondered how any of us ended up in this profession? We would love to hear from you! Send us questions through social media using #AskAnArchivist!
|Robert Royston helps answer this horse's questions about his design!|
It’s Exposition mania in the Archives right now. The exhibit Exceptional Expositions is designed and everyone is busy mounting pieces of it and preparing text. It will soon be hung in the cases with care in hopes that on opening viewers appear. The Exhibit celebrating the centennial of the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition (PPIE) and the publication of a new book, Into the Void Pacific, on the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition (GGIE) opens on Tuesday September 8th.
International expositions served as entertainment, education, mass media, and industrial marketing. The 1876 Centennial Exposition was followed by numerous fairs in the U.S. including Chicago’s Columbian Exposition (1893), Buffalo’s (1901), St. Louis’ (1904), and Seattle’s Alaska Yukon Pacific (1909); as well as the depression era Chicago Fair (1932) and New York’s World’s Fair in 1939. Ironically, both the New York and Chicago Fairs promoted themselves as a vision of the future, while the GGIE placed itself in a Pacific Region that, in fact, turned out to be the future.
The PPIE and GGIE promoted San Francisco as the hub of the Pacific encompassing both Latin America and Asia. The architecture of the PPIE presented a Beaux Arts confection while the buildings of the GGIE presented a sometimes uneasy transition from a Beaux Arts to a modern design aesthetic.
The Panama Pacific International Exposition (PPIE) of 1915 had 80,000 exhibition booths spread over 3,731,500 square feet--the equivalent of 85 acres or 64 football fields. In 1911 during the planning stages of the Exposition Dr. Frederick James Volney Skiff was hired as director-in-chief of domestic and foreign participation, the same year the exposition began accepting exhibitor applications. Skiff developed an exposition taxonomy organizing the exhibition halls and the exhibitions within them according to perceived patron interest. A team of exhibition division chiefs was assembled between 1912 and 1914, who would go on to create 11 main exhibition departments, 56 exhibition categories, and 800 exhibition subclasses. To advertise the exhibition space, brochure advertisements were mailed to industry, trade, and scientific organizations enticing them to purchase an exhibition space that included police and fire protection but more importantly would allow them to showcase their goods and wares to an international audience...remember this is before the internet!
The same year the PPIE opened also marked the infancy of the implementation of building codes in America. This is reflected in the regulations established by the Exposition regarding booth construction. Exhibitors were expected to erect booths in the fair grounds that conformed to the exposition-defined standards. These standards included proscribed heights for display cases, table tops, cornices, and railings, among others. Even signage had to be “moderate in size and neat design.” Behavior within the confines of each respective booth was also regulated--eating was off limits, promotional materials like brochures had to be approved by the chief of that exhibition department, and goods could only be ordered and not directly sold from each booth.
The drawings of PPIE booths in our collection would have either been located in the Palace of Manufactures (housing “more refined goods”) or the Palace of Varied Industries. To see more of the PPIE booths and buildings as well as material from the Golden Gate International Exposition, another world’s fair held in the San Francisco Bay Area 24 years later, come see the Exceptional Expositions exhibition in the Environmental Design Library on view from September 8th to December 16th, 2015.
During more than thirty years as an archivist and social historian I have had the privilege of working with hundreds of personal and professional papers and government and institutional records. Material ranging from gold-rush diaries to Farm Security camp newsletters and from Chinese immigrant’s coaching letters for Angel Island to designs for the Sea Ranch. But none have given me the delight of perfectly and succinctly combining visual interest and social history as captured in twelve colorful blotters created by Allan Jacobs during his six year tenure as Director of the San Francisco Department of City Planning.
Jacobs started with two fresh blotters each year on which he “doodled” while on the phone. They illustrate, both literally and figuratively, issues on the desk of the Planning Director and thoughts generated by these issues. That he preserved them is evidence of his recognition of their scholarly potential as well as clearly relishing their artistic expression. These blotters serve as valuable documents of their time and place and as a visual diary of ideas, issues, and politics as well as of personal matters. We are very pleased to add them to the holdings of the Environmental Design Archives and to share them as an exhibit on our website: http://exhibits.ced.berkeley.edu/exhibits/show/jacobsblotters.
--Waverly Lowell, Curator
In the late 1960s Eckbo, Dean, Austin & William proposed that the Denver Botanic Gardens take the "logical progression from pure scientific usage to pleasing display in the arrangement of its general collection." They strived to create a space that would allow homeowners to see new plant combinations that they could try in their own gardens. In the spring of 2015, EDA Archivist's Emily and Chris were lucky to visit the Bontanic Gardens while in Denver for an Archives conference.The gardens have a heiarchy of meandering paths, wonderful water features and lakes, and a spectacular conservatory made of cast concrete.
Here are some gems from the Eckbo collection and some photographs we took during our visit. Enjoy!
Eckbo, Dean, Austin & William 1969 plan.
What the Denver Botanic Garden's look like today.
When the Archives transitioned to our beautiful new website, you may have noticed that the online exhibits page remained the same. This is because the exhibits page is actually a separate website that uses Omeka, an open source software developed for museums, archives, libraries, and scholars to share their collections. We use it to organize our digital content and create virtual exhibits. We are in the process of upgrading this software and earlier this month Emily, Chris, and I had the privilege of attending a symposium at UC Santa Cruz to learn about new tools and possibilities for projects that Omeka can support.
Librarians at UC Santa Cruz have been huge innovators for Omeka since they used it to create the Grateful Dead Archive Online. Over a two-year period with the help of a programmer, they were able to customize the Omeka software to create an online presence for this unique collection and provide access to fans and researchers around the world. Since then, UCSC faculty have started using Omeka for teaching and research and we got to hear about several projects currently in the works.
History Professor Elaine Sullivan explained how using Omeka to create metadata for digital objects and then online exhibits helped teach her students to work collaboratively and write for public audiences. By taking a chosen topic beyond a “five paragraph essay,” Sullivan’s students are able to view the cultural artifacts in new ways and better understand their context.
History Professor Alan Christy presented The Gail Project, a research project inspired by a collection of photographs taken by U.S. Army Capt. Charles Gail in 1952 while stationed in Okinawa, Japan. The photos, depicting a landscape and way of life that vanished shortly thereafter, have sparked an international dialogue about the post-World War II occupation of Okinawa and the ongoing relationship between Okinawa and the United States. Christy and his students want to use Omeka both to display the photos, and to create a place where people of different generations, cultures, and languages can come together and share their stories and memories. One challenge they face is the inability to use Japanese characters within Omeka. A proposed solution is to develop an audio commentary function that would not only collect oral histories and reactions, but also help to document the Okinawan language, now considered endangered.
Digital Initiatives team members Jess Waggoner and Ned Henry presented the Omeka Curator Dashboard project, a suite of plugins developed for Omeka, the necessity for which grew out of the Grateful Dead Archive Online project. The plugins provide functions ranging from the importation of content from various social media and digital asset management sites to the ability to track changes made to an item within Omeka. Henry also spoke on the community of Omeka developers and how to access them, but more importantly how to support them so that they can provide the best working results.
While the first two presentations were very inspiring and motivating, the Omeka Curator Dashboard holds the most relevance for the use of Omeka at the Archives. Once we can upgrade our software, we will be able to use these plugins to streamline our process for describing materials and build more engaging and interactive exhibits.
We are also planning to develop some virtual archives for specific collections and subjects. This fall we will be working with Architecture History Associate Professor Andy Shanken on an exhibit of the Golden Gate International Exposition (1939) and the Panama Pacific International Exposition (1915), which will be accompanied by a website showcasing our Fairs & Expositions Collection. I am also working on processing the Oakland & Imada Collection, which presents a great opportunity for a virtual archives of Joseph Eichler materials.
We ended the workshop with breakout sessions and I attended one called “If Only I Could…” I think many of us in the room were still new enough to Omeka and digital asset management that we weren’t sure what to rely on Omeka for versus other available services. The consensus at the end of the session was that we needed to create an Omeka users group to keep the conversation going about how we are using Omeka and what the software can and should do.
Overall, the symposium was eye-opening. It was wonderful to connect with other users and potential users to discuss Digital Humanities projects and I am so excited about the world of possibilities that has been presented to us. Now we just need to get started!
Last month, the EDA participated in #wikiD, an event that coincided with International Women’s Day (March 8) to help write women designers, architects, and all those involved in the creation of the built environment into Wikipedia. We heard about the event through ArchiteXX, which sought to increase an internationally diverse listing of women on Wikipedia. This inaugural event was spurred by Despina Stratigakos’s Places essay, “Unforgetting Women Architects: From the Pritzker to Wikipedia,” which pushes for the importance of ensuring the presence of women architects in online histories – and the challenges in making this happen.
Though Wikipedia may seem an unauthorized resource for promoting these women, it is often the top listed link for a Google search and one that is clicked on frequently. This site has become important for public awareness, especially for minorities and underrepresented populations. In her article, Stratigakos comments on the importance of the internet for preserving the cultural record. She quotes Mia Ridge “A historian might spend decades undertaking research in archives and writing up discoveries in scholarly journals, but if the work does not have a presence online — and, specifically, a presence that is not behind a paywall — it is all but invisible outside academia. As Ridge states, ‘If it’s not Googleable, it doesn’t exist.’ And because Wikipedia articles usually show up first in Google search rankings, intervening on the site is especially important in establishing online visibility.”
In the archives world, we often “crawl” websites to capture and preserve the information published at a given time. When certain voices aren’t seen or readily accessible at the top of a Google search (and let’s face it, we’re all guilty of only paying attention to the first items listed in our own Google searches), it underlines the assumption that certain groups have not participated in the profession, especially among a younger generation that relies heavily on the internet for research.
The EDA has published pages for our collections on Wikipedia before, and have found it to be a useful tool in reaching more diverse populations. I’ve published several in my 2 years at the archives – however, they’ve all been for men. The process is fairly strait forward: you write about a person’s life, and supply references to back up your statements in an attempt to make the published article verifiable; you load an image of the person, and maybe a few for their projects to add a visual element to the page; and you submit it for editing and publication. In the past, my articles have all passed Wikipedia’s editing and publishing review that occurs after the initial submission.
This was not the case with the three articles the EDA tried to publish for Mai Arbegast, Maggie Baylis, and Alice Carey. Cailin, Chris and I each took on the responsibility of creating a Wikipedia entry for these women, starting at the beginning of March to coincide with Women’s History Month. After reading Stratigakos’s article, we were prepared for the very likely possibility that our entries would be rejected or questioned. In other women’s history events, editors found that new entries on women were questioned more frequently for the sources referenced and the significance of the topic than those of their male counterparts.
Each of us experienced a variety of issues in getting our submissions published: the significance of these women was questioned, as were the resources referenced; the image copyright needed to be verified through a formal letter to Wikipedia; and even when published, certain pages retain a disclaimer at the top warning the reader that the article is written in a manner which “promotes the subject in a subjective manner.” These hurdles were new to us, and were not something we had ever encountered when submitting articles to Wikipedia for men in our collections. While we attempted to work with Wikipedia to revise our articles to fit their guidelines for publication, our drafts were repeatedly rejected. It was only after each of us had revised our articles 3+ times, and in one case contacted Wikipedia to work with their live help desk, that we started to see progress in our articles going live. As of this writing, all three articles have been approved though it took a month to do so – a hindrance that could deter other users from continuing to push for publication.
The real issue at hand is that we want to utilize as many resources as possible to reach the broadest community possible, and Wikipedia is one of the main ways to do this. It's also an important way to expand awareness of underrepresented groups of people and increase their presence online. We strive to promote a diverse and accurate portrayal of the participation of all groups in the field of architecture, and want to be accurate in the broader world of the internet as well. While this process has been rife with frustration, we will continue to submit to Wikipedia but with an increased awareness of what it means to click that top link in our next Google search.
During the past 15 years, whenever anyone found a drawing with fun or interesting people in it, we made a copy and dropped it into a folder pending their use in a future exhibit. Mostly we just wanted to share these images because they were fun. One of the inspirations for this endeavor was the biomorphic man.
So this February we began developing the exhibit Designing People (currently on display until May 19th in the Environmental Design Library) and began looking more closely at the images. We discovered there is almost no literature on the subject and that some designers use figures regularly and others rarely. Initially, the primary reason people were included in architectural drawings was to convey scale, and they still are; however, figures are also represented in these drawings to help the client imagine who might inhabit their structure or landscape and how it might be used. The technology of representation has changed from pencil and watercolor to computer “scalies”, but sadly the figures remain limited to the white middle class, unless diversity is a key element of the project. Although intended to sell the proposed design to the client, figures in presentation drawings also provide a rich graphic resource for conveying the social behaviors of their time and place. Often they reveal gender roles prevalent at the time of the rendering. Most of the midcentury renderings have the woman indoors or in the kitchen and the men outdoors or reading. Not that this comes as a surprise, but it is so clearly and frequently rendered. In one drawing the woman’s perspective is understood as it illustrates a view from the kitchen looking into the dining room to watch the baby and beyond to her husband reading the paper.
There is also the pure pleasure of looking at the fashion of the time, or enjoying the designer’s sense of humor.
Primarily the renderings convey a desirable environment showing playing children, happy shoppers, apartment house dwellers enjoying their sunny decks, or students studying, but in special situations someone shows us the workers. Please come see the show if you get a chance.
--Waverly Lowell, Curator