In January of 2018, the EDA was delighted to receive a donation of the work of landscape architect Louis Smaus, who practiced in New York and the San Francisco Bay Area from the early 1910s until his retirement in the 1950s. Smaus attended horticultural school near Hamburg, Germany where he began his career working as a landscape gardener at Paul Hauber Baumschulen. Smaus emigrated to the U.S. at age nineteen and found work, with a large firm in New York, as a landscape gardener of private and commercial grounds.
In 1910, Smaus moved to California where he worked at Stanford University and had charge of the Lathrop grounds. Following this Smaus became an employee of A.B. Spreckels, sugar magnate, and maintained the Spreckels estate in Napa, CA. In the late teens he joined the MacRorie-McLaren Company in San Mateo, CA who worked with major clients such as Mrs. Henry Allen and Andrew Welch and provided a majority of the plants for the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition. Smaus went into business for himself as a Landscape Engineer in 1931, working on Milton Haas estate in Los Altos, the Lachman estate, among others, retiring in the early 1950s.
The collection contains drawings and photographs from Smaus’s time working with the MacRorie-McLaren Company circa 1915-1922. See below from some examples of the projects during this time:
This year marks the 3rd annual form follows student seating element design competition. We were incredibly fortunate to have street furniture company mmcité 7 sponsor the competition, challenging CED students to design and build a seating element for the Wurster Hall courtyard inspired by collection materials in the Environmental Design Archives. Students drew inspiration for their designs from archival materials relating to The Sea Ranch, a breakthrough example of an environmentally sensitive design that continues to grow in influence and relevance to architects and the public at large.
During our first round of judging on October 11, students presented their designs to a panel of judges including David Karásek (mmcité), Dana Buntrock (Professor of Architecture), Richard Hindle (Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture & Environmental Planning), Elizabeth Thorp (CED Fabrication Shop), and Alex Yarovoy (CED Alumnus). The judges selected five designs to move on to the second round. Selected students were provided with a single sheet of exterior plywood (4’ x 8’ x ¾” thick), finishing materials and $50 worth of steel to construct their seating element.
On November 8, the five completed seats were on display in the Wurster Gallery where faculty, students, and the general public were able to vote on the top three designs.
After today's round of voting, we are pleased to announce that the top designs are:
Hong Xiang Chen, Fang Xu, ZhiyaoShu
These students will receive a cash prize and may be considered by mmcité for future production! All of these designs, including the five full-scale seats, are on display in the Environmental Design Library through December 20.
This is an event that the Environmental Design Archives has truly enjoyed hosting. It is a wonderful opportunity for us to have students engage with primary resources and watch them create something truly unique. We look forward to continuing this competition in the future!
Braving single digit temperatures and frozen landscapes, I travelled to Chicago during the first weekend in January to visit the second annual Chicago Architecture Biennial. With the title, Make New History, the biennial took place from September 2017 to January 2018 and was curated by Artistic Directors Sharon Johnston and Mark Lee. The installations were housed in the Chicago Cultural Center and featured over 140 participants from 20 countries. This year’s theme focused on architects and artists whose designs explore how architecture can make new histories, often through referencing the past. The artistic statement for the biennial’s theme succinctly states:
“Despite the seemingly smooth horizon of historical information in which we find ourselves, there is a great diversity in the ways and means with which architects approach and redefine the past: from increasingly visible practices of referencing and resampling in image making, to reassembly of as-found and original materials, to the site specific practices that engage with heritage in unexpected ways. These paths all foreground historical narratives, forms, and objects – yet, their reconstitution is utterly contemporary.”
The referral to history led to some truly unique installations. Marshall Brown’s The Architecture of Creative Miscegenation sought to address the fact that every architecture is “infected” with references from history. His collages of building typologies digitally stitched together offers a new architecture of synthesized parts.
Keith Krumwiede’s wallpaper, Visions of Another America, is based on The Monuments of Paris by Joseph Dufour. His work examines the 19th century's fascination with recreating romantic landscapes and geographies in paintings and drawings for decorative display. In Krumwiede’s wallpaper, historically significant architecture such as the Louvre or Porte Saint-Denis are replaced with images of fictional developer homes that he first showed in Atlas of Another America, which introduced the idea of a fictitious yet familiar suburb known as Freedomland.
So many designers examined ways to reference and reflect on the history of architecture in their work, yet Jorge Otero-Pailos’ The Ethics of Dust literally put this physical history on display. The Ethics of Dust is a series of casts that are the results from cleaning pollution from monuments around the world. Otero-Pailos applies liquid latex to monuments; once dried, he removes the latex and along with it years of pollution, dust, and debris. These casts are not only visually stunning, but also show the impact that humans have on our architecture and environment.
Sponsors of the Biennial included SC Johnson, who offered free bus tours of Frank Lloyd Wright’s design for the company’s global headquarters in Racine, Wisconsin. The aptly named “Wright Now” tour included the administration building, research tower, and the newly built Fortaleza Hall by Foster + Partners.
Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, the campus continues to be regarded as an ideal of the modern workplace. Wright’s design included an emphasis on natural light and collective workspaces, while also using the unique building technique of laying Pyrex tubes on top of one another instead of glass windows. Apparently Wright was not a fan of the local landscape, and felt that the workers did not need to look at the view when they should be working. While it’s definitely an eye-catching design, it did have some pitfalls - scientists in the research tower complained that it was too bright for them to adequately do their work, and requested that sunglasses be provided. The 43 miles of tubes used were also not able to stand up to the local weather - leaks were a regular occurrence until new sealant was installed. Throughout the campus, Wright also utilized tapered columns of his own design called “dendriform” to allow in light while also minimizing the floor print they occupied. Our tour guide relayed a story about how the Wisconsin Industrial Commission did not believe that these columns, which are 90-inches at the base and 18.5 feet at the top, would be able to handle the weight of his building. Wright decided to test their load-bearing abilities in public, putting sandbags on top to prove the design’s strength. After 60 tons were loaded on top of one (when only 12 were needed to prove his point), he was given his building permit.
One of the most stunning aspects of the tour was the Administration Building’s Great Workroom. Spanning half an acre, this space supported the work of 200 employees. Wright designed every aspect of the building, from its architecture to the furniture, and emphasized an open and bright environment as a way promote efficiency and direct contact between workers. The space feels like a cathedral, and certainly would have been an awe-inspiring space to work in.
Photography was not allowed inside buildings on the tour, but a recent Vox video emphasizes the significance of Wright’s design while also providing stunning visuals. Follow this link to watch.
By Waverly Lowell, Curator
A package for the Archives was dropped off in the Dean’s office last week. On the outside was the note “letters from Willis Polk to his Aunt Daisy.” Willis Polk, a prominent, if contentious, San Francisco architect died in 1924 and his successor firm left archives and furniture to UC Berkeley in 1934. [figure 1]
While working for the California Historical Society in the early 1980s I preserved five Willis Polk clipping scrapbooks and learned that he had a younger sister Daisy. The last volume had a number of clippings about her and the rest of the clippings were torn out. I always wondered what had happened to Daisy. So I knew that Daisy was not his aunt, but his sister and eagerly opened the package.
Inside were postcards from Aunt Daisy, photographs of Willis Polk, Daisy de Buyer, and their father W.W. Polk, photographs of Willis Polk’s projects, and a copy of Architecture News (Jan 1891). Willis Polk (1867-1924) [fig 2] was born in Jacksonville, IL, to carpenter Willis Webb Polk. He had two siblings, Daniel and Daisy (1874-1963) [fig 3]. Polk entered into partnership with his father and brother opening the San Francisco office of Polk & Polk (1892-1894). Neither Willis nor Daisy had children, so it was likely that Alice had been Dan’s child. I called the person who donated the material and asked him how he came to have it. He explained that his mother had purchased a house in Fresno and found this envelope in the attic. He took it home when he cleared out her house following her death as he found these historical artifacts interesting. After a few years he decided the material belonged in an archives, found that EDA had a Willis Polk collection, and dropped it off.
The story of Daisy’s life would make a great movie. She was trapped in Europe at the outbreak of WWI [figure 4] and became active in French relief efforts including working with future president Herbert Hoover on Belgian Relief. [fig 5 daisy] After the war, Mrs. W. H. Crocker of San Francisco used her personal funds to rebuild the village of Vitrimont which had been nearly destroyed and put Daisy in charge of the project. [fig 6 -postcard]. While at Vitrimont, Daisy's car broke down and General de Buyer, who lived nearby at Nancy, happened to be passing and lent assistance. From this chance meeting, “romance bloomed” and the couple married the following year. [fig 7- crocker telegram] For her relief and rebuilding work, Daisy was awarded the Medaille de la Reconnaissance Francaise (Silver) in September of 1919, and the following year was created a Chevalier in the Order of the Legion of Honor. She was known as Un Ami de France. Following her husband’ death after only two years of marriage, Countess Daisy de Buyer relocated to Paris which became her principal residence. She wintered in Paris, travelled, and spent her summers in the family chateau in Nancy. She is buried in in her husband's family cemetery at Besancon.
Daniel Polk had a daughter Alice (1907-1960) who remained close to her aunt Daisy. [fig 8 March 1957] One of the news articles reports that Daisy gave her niece a trunk of family photographs and papers! Sadly, Alice Polk Kegley was killed in a car accident after which her husband Charles (Carl) Smith Kegley (1897–1979) moved to Fresno. This is one example of how historical treasures can arrive at the archives through a roundabout route and added to existing collections at the Environmental Design Archives.
For more information please see https://archives.ced.berkeley.edu/collections/polk-willis
A short trip to the Netherlands this summer gave me the chance to see some long-time favorite buildings in their native context. This travel also fired my imagination as to the possibilities of human-scale architecture and landscape, expressed through pedestrian and bicycle friendly infrastructure, easy transportation, and community gardens.
People often think of bicycles when they think of the Dutch and it’s easy to see why: there are bikes everywhere, as well as the infrastructure to accommodate them. Upon exiting Amsterdam Centraal Railway Station, you cannot miss the sea of bicycles.
There is even a “garage” with multiple levels, as clearly there is no more room at street level.
If you exit out the back of the station, there are floating bike parking lot barges, some with double-deck racks.
There are bikes everywhere – and not just used for personal transport. This delivery bike was seen in Da Costabuurt, a neighborhood West of central Amsterdam.
Besides bicycles and their paths, Amsterdam is crossed by trams and ferries. In some places, the trams have their own rights-of-way, lined with cycleways and sidewalks, of course.
Free pedestrian/bike ferries cross the IJ and link the North side of Amsterdam with the city center.
Transport to other cities in the Netherlands is easy via train, with frequent service on fast intercity trains.
We took a train to the town of Ede, and then a bus into the Nationale Park De Hoge Veluwe, to visit the Kröller-Müller Museum, which is a beautiful museum of 19th and 20th century art set in a forested sculpture garden. The museum grounds are home to classic monumental sculpture, such as Sol Lewitt’s Six Sided Tower, as well as pavilions, such as Aldo van Eyck’s pavilion originally built in 1966 for a sculpture exhibition in Arnhem, but rebuilt at the museum in 2005.
The Kröller-Müller Museum has other pieces of ‘architectural sculpture’ such as Joep van Lieshout’s Mobile Home for Kröller-Müller from 1995
Via train we also visited the city of Utrecht, principally to see the buildings of Gerrit Rietveld. First stop, of course, was the Schröder House of 1924.
Not usually noted is that this small house faces an elevated freeway (behind the photographer in this picture). The land beyond the freeway was owned by Madame Schröder, and when the road was built, she commissioned Rietveld to build dwellings on the former farmland. These apartment buildings, known as the Erasmuslaan Houses, were built from 1931 to 1934.
We also visited Rietveld's 1928 Chauffeur’s House, with it’s finely patterned painted façade and bright red door.
Utrecht is home to many more Reitveld works; for example the 1960 Theissing house, and examples of his furniture at Utrecht’s Centraal Museum.
Back in Amsterdam, we took time off from architectural delights to visit a few of the community, or allotment, gardens known as volkstuinen. They are beautiful parks full of small land plots where the Dutch tend vegetable and flower gardens and get away from the city to relax in small cabins.
These allotment gardens are like miniature cities unto themselves – complete with miniature streets and canals.
Amsterdam manages to balance new large-scale architectural projects, such as the 2012 EYE Film Institute Netherlands by the Austrian firm Delugan Meissl architects, with more ‘traditional’ landscapes. Not twenty minutes by bike from the Eastern districts of the city, the farms and open spaces of Amsterdam-Noord, or Waterland, offer a timeless vision of the Dutch Landscape.
Text and Photographs by Jason Miller, CED Visual Resources Librarian
BY: WAVERLY LOWELL, CURATOR
Back from three weeks in Scotland. Following a short stop in London, I got to Glasgow for the Society of Architectural Historians annual meeting. It was great to hear papers presented by current and former students and faculty. One session focused on the architecture of the coal industry “the industry that drove industry". In the 1950s, 90% of all energy came from coal, and according to Dr. Oglethorpe of Historic Environment Scotland - April 24, 2017 was the first day no coal was burned in the UK for more than two hundred years. That Scotland had 300 coalmines was brought home on a visit to Chatelherault, (completed 1743) home of 5th Duke of Hamilton.
Although the hunting lodge designed by William Adam still stands [fig 1, 2 & 3] the Hamilton Palace, sometimes described as Scotland’s Versailles was demolished in part because the ground it stood on was unstable as a result of the coal mines underneath.
Following the conference additional tours and vacation spent visiting the island and highlands revealed a profound range of landscape and structures. The earliest of these the standing stones near the village of Callanish (Gaelic: Calanais) on the west coast of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides erected in the late Neolithic era, and a focus for ritual activity during the Bronze Age and the Bronze Age Clava Cairns near Inverness. [Fig 4, 5].
We walked through a number of buildings on the isle of Iona, where it is said that St. Columba brought Christianity to Scotland from Ireland. The abbey is the most elaborate and best-preserved ecclesiastical building surviving from the Middle Ages in Scotland’s western Isles. Nearby are the ruins of a nunnery. [Fig 6, 7]
Like the abbey on Iona, many of the windows of Glasgow’s Gothic cathedral, built from the late 12th century onwards, are comprised of clear leaded panes rather than colored ones. [fig 8-10] We surmised this may be to take advantage of the light whenever possible in such a northern location.
We visited the ruins of medieval Bothwell castle from the 13th century [fig 11], Cawdor Castle, fictional home of MacBeth, built around a 15th-century tower house, with substantial additions in later centuries.
It is surrounded by gardens, formal and wild [fig 12, 13], and Sterling Castle, which dates from the early 12th century, although the present buildings were mostly built between 1490 and 1600 [fig 14].
My favorite site was the cotton mill complex of New Lanark created in 1785 on the banks of the river Clyde. Under the management of David Dale and his son-in-law Robert Owen, it became world famous for its educational and social practices. It is now restored within a “sublime” landscape [fig 15, 16].
This wonderful trip also included crofts built from and burning peat , 18th century bridges, 19th century gothic “castles” and their Jekyllian gardens, sheep on the one-lane roads, and time spent driving along Lochs Lomond and Ness and through the Cairngorm mountains [fig 17- 21].
Last month, Chris Marino, Referenence Archivist and I helped to plan a Wikipedia edit-a-thon in conjunction with Women’s History Month. We worked with other librarians on campus to create an event for the UC Berkeley community of students, faculty, and staff to help close the gender gap on Wikipedia and ensure that published content is not skewed by the lack of female participation. The event used the Art + Feminism organizer’s kit which provided us with the materials we would need to host an edit-a-thon.
Open to all gender identities and expressions, the event addressed the gender imbalance on Wikipedia by editing existing pages relating to art and feminism. With less than 10% of contributors to Wikipedia identifying as female, events like this are essential to train a new community of editors and encourage active participation in editing and creating content for the site.
Our Wikipedia edit-a-thon took place on March 21, 2017 in UCB’s Moffitt Library during the afternoon. We offered three training sessions throughout the event for new editors, and encouraged those with experience to stay and edit content in a communal setting. Nearly 20 people participated in the event, resulting in 26 articles being edited and 1,500 words added. As of this writing, the event has resulted in the edited articles being viewed over 20,000 times. The planners for this event created a suggested list of pages that needed editing, and Chris and I included several names from EDA collections including: Edith Heath, Barbara Stauffacher Solomon, and Geraldine Knight Scott.
Chris and I are planning a similar event for September 7, 2017 in conjunction with our exhibit exploring design and diversity, throughout the history of the College of Environmental Design, between women designers and powerful men, and significant work from a diverse group of designers in the EDA collections. We will post more about the event in the coming months, and hope you can join us!
BY: JASON MILLER, DIRECTOR OF THE VISUAL RESOURCES CENTER
The CED Visual Resources Center is very proud to have contributed many images from our collections to a new exhibit, Notes sur l'asphalte : Esquisse d'une Amérique mobile et précaire, that opened in Montpellier, France, on February 7th. Curated by Historian Jordi Ballesta and Photographer and Master Printer Camille Fallet, the show presented photographs by many scholars well known to Berkeley – many of them taught in the College of Environmental Design and are revered for their work, in front of and behind the camera. The exhibit included works by former Berkeley teachers John Brinckerhoff Jackson, David Lowenthal, Donald Appelyard, Richard Longstreth, and Alan Jacobs, as well as scholars and photographers including Chester Liebs, Walker Evans, William Christenberry, and Thomas Strong.
Curator Jordi Ballesta describes the exhibit best: “The purpose of the exhibition Notes sur l'asphalte : Esquisse d'une Amérique mobile et précaire [Photographic notes on asphalt: images of a mobile and vernacular America] will be to show research works never exhibited in Europe and almost forgotten in the United States, as they belong to a relatively unknown gap located on the edges of the studied academic methods, artistic practices and documentary processes. For these architects, geographers and historians, the photography seems to have been a means of quick note-taking. Their photographic practices didn't lead to deviate from the everyday world; they allowed us to question it and to structure their field experience mainly developed on the road. To this end, D. Appleyard, J. B. Jackson, D. Lowenthal, and others took pictures while driving, stopping on the roadside, or staying inside their vehicle.”
The Visual Resources Center hosted Ballesta and Fallet several times over the past few years as they completed research for the exhibit. As VRC Librarian, I was honored to take part in helping them uncover evocative and enlightening photographs that have never been exhibited and in many cases have not been seen for many years.
By: Waverly Lowell, Curator
When people hear Sedona Arizona, the usual responses are first “the red rocks are incredible” followed by “have you seen the chapel in the rocks??!!” I spent part of the winter break in Sedona and would say yes to both.
Sedona is at an elevation of 4,500 feet and considered part of the upper Sonoran Desert of Northern California. The famous red rocks of Sedona are due to the presence of hematite (iron oxide also known as rust) that stains the layer of sand stone known as the Schnebly Hill Formation. The Schnebly Hill Formation is found only in the Sedona vicinity and was deposited during the Permian Period.
Although also known for its mild climate, we were lucky to visit during a rare snowstorm.
Driving through the valley surrounded by geologic splendor, and seeing the Chapel of the Holy Cross rising out of the stone, one can’t help but think of the ancient city of Petra in Jordan.
Completed in 1956, the chapel rises 70 feet out of a 1,000-foot red rock cliff.
Local rancher and sculptor Marguerite Staude commissioned the now iconic chapel for Bernard T. Espelage, Bishop of Gallop. It seems that her original idea, in the early 1930s, was to build something in Budapest, Hungary but she had to forgo that plan due to the outbreak of World War II. She then chose to build the church in her native region. Although the chapel is built on Coconino National Forest land, Staude obtained a special-use permit with the assistance of Senator Barry Goldwater.
Richard Hein was chosen as project architect, and the design was executed by architect August K. Strotz, both from the firm of Anshen & Allen. The chapel was completed in only 18 months. The chapel is modest with a view that is not.
It consists of one large room with a small entry way and a flight of stairs down to the gift shop. Once I returned to Berkeley, I immediately viewed the drawings in the EDA Anshen + Allen Collection.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chapel_of_the_Holy_Cross_(Sedona,_Arizona) accessed 1/7/2017
This past October I had the opportunity to take a leave of absence from my position at the EDA to work with a small architectural archives in Somerset, England. Having lived in London during graduate school, I was excited to return to the UK and experience a completely different side of the country away from the bustling metropolis. My stay in the village of Yarlington was an idyllic introduction to the English countryside, nestled between the equally scenic towns of Castle Cary and Bruton, and in close proximity to numerous points of interest including Bath, Stourhead, Salisbury and Stonehenge (which I first spotted during a surreal moment waking from a nap on my way from the airport).
Prior to my trip, Waverly had pointed out that I would be only a short drive from Hestercombe Gardens, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll. The EDA has drawings for this project in the Jekyll collection, and knowing that I was so close to one of her gardens inspired me to make the journey there, which was no small feat. Having never driven in the UK prior to this trip, I had to quickly acclimate to numerous roundabouts, driving without GPS (who knew paper maps still existed!), and of course sticking to the left side of the road (for which Beyoncé’s song ”Irreplaceable” with the lyrics “To the left, to the left” proved to be essential).
Before my visit I had been put in contact with Philip White, founder of the Hestercombe Gardens Trust, who put me in contact with head gardener, Claire Greenslade. She was able to tell me more about the intricacies in working with a heritage garden, specifically the difficulties in keeping color in a garden that was only designed for summer, as well as tracking down the original plants outlined in Jekyll’s design. Last year she was able to find a bulb for an iris that was thought to be extinct, and are now happily planted in their intended locations.
At Hestercombe I learned that the garden by Lutyens and Jekyll was actually the third to be created at the site, following 13th and 18th century gardens, the latter of which is a Victorian garden reminiscent of the wild and rambling landscape at Stourhead. All of the gardens have been restored in the last 25 years, and were opened to the public in 1997 after 125 years of being closed. Hestercombe House has also been recently opened to the public, after serving as the headquarters for the Somerset Fire Brigade from 1953-2006. It now houses a contemporary art gallery and artist residency space.
Though my visit coincided with one of the grayest days I experienced while in the UK, I thoroughly enjoyed my time spent walking through these gardens. The efforts to restore this rich site help it to shine regardless of the weather. If you happen to find yourself in this part of England, please consider taking the time to visit.